Monday, January 26, 2009

~*~Journey of Indian Republic~*~

Journey of Indian Republic

58 years back, a salute of 21 guns and the unfurling of the Indian National flag by Dr. Rajendra Prasad heralded the historic birth of the Indian Republic on January 26, 1950; 894 days after our country became a dominion following withdrawal of British Rule. Since then, every year the day is celebrated with great pride and happiness all over the nation. The transition of India from a British colony to a sovereign, secular, and democratic nation was indeed historical. It was a long journey of around two decades that started with the conceptualization of the dream in 1930 to its actual realization in 1950. A look into the journey that led to the birth of Indian Republic will make our celebrations more meaningful.  

Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress 

The seeds of a republican nation were sowed at the Lahore session of the Indian National Congress at the midnight of 31st December 1929. The session was held under the presidency of Pt. Jawarhar Lal Nehru. Those present in the meeting took a pledge to mark January 26 as "Independence Day" in order to march towards realizing the dream of complete independence from the British. The Lahore Session paved way to the Civil Disobedience movement. It was decided that January 26, 1930 would be observed as the Purna Swaraj (complete Independence) Day. Many Indian political parties and Indian revolutionaries from all over the country united to observe the day with honour and pride.
Indian Constituent Assembly Meetings 

The Indian Constituent Assembly, which was constituted as a result of the negotiations between the Indian leaders and members of the British Cabinet Mission, had its first meeting on December 9, 1946. The Objective of the Assembly was to give India a constitution, which would serve a lasting purpose and hence appointed a number of committees to thoroughly research the various aspects of the proposed constitution. The recommendations were discussed, debated and revised many times before the Indian Constitution was finalized and officially adopted three years later on November 26, 1949. 
Constitution came into force 

Though India became a free nation on August 15, 1947, it enjoyed the true spirit of Independence on January 26, 1950 when the Constitution of India finally came into force. The Constitution gave the citizens of India the power to govern themselves by choosing their own government. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, took oath as the first President of India at the Durbar Hall in the Government House and this was followed by the Presidential drive along a five-mile route to the Irwin Stadium, where he unfurled the National Flag. 
Ever since the historic day, January 26 is celebrated with festivities and patriotic fervor all around the country. The day owes its importance to the constitution of India that was adopted on this day. On this Republic Day, read what the great Constitution of India, that propounds liberal democracy, has in its store. Let's also feel proud in pronouncing what the Preamble to our Constitution says.

 Did you know?
 With 395 Articles and eight Schedules, the Indian Constitution is the largest written constitution in the world.

Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of Independent India, in his special message to his countrymen, on the birth of the Indian Republic, said: 

"We must re-dedicate ourselves on this day to the peaceful but sure realization of 
the dream that had inspired the Father of our Nation and the other captains and 
soldiers of our freedom struggle, the dream of establishing a classless, 
co-operative, free and happy society in 'his country'. We must remember 
that this is more a day of dedications than of rejoicing - dedication to t
he glorious task of making the peasants and workers the toilers and 
the thinkers fully free, happy and cultured."  

C. Rajagopalachari, His Excellency the Governor-General in a broadcast talk from the Delhi 
Station of All-India Radio on Jan 26, 1950 said: 

"On the eve of my laying down office, with the inauguration of the Republic, I 
should like to tender my greetings and best wishes to the men and women of India 
who will henceforth be a citizen of a republic. I feel deeply thankful for the affection 
showered on me by all sections of the people, which alone enabled me to hear 
the burden of an office to the duties and conventions of which I had been 
an utter stranger."

Friday, January 9, 2009

4-Are we friendly with our life?

How to make compost

Making and using compost is the cornerstone of organic gardening.

The finished product is rich, dark, crumbly and sweet-smelling. It is made of recycled garden and kitchen waste, and can also include paper products. It is used to feed and condition the soil and in making potting mixes. Around 40 per cent of the average dustbin contents are suitable for home-composting so it helps cut down on landfill too.

Making compost is often considered to be complex but all you need to do is provide the right ingredients and let nature do the rest – however, a little know-how will help you make better compost, more efficiently.

Where do I make my compost?

There are a variety of bins on the market but they are all just a container for the composting process. A bin is not strictly necessary – you can just build a heap and cover it over with some polythene or cardboard. However, bins do look neater and are easier to manage. You can build your own, buy one from any number of suppliers, including The Organic Gardening Catalogue, or get one cheaply from your local council – contact the Waste and Recycling Department at your local council for more information or visit the recycle now website:

Garden Organic members can find out about making or buying a compost bin or box in our factsheets:

  * Building a Compost Box
  * Buying a Compost Box

Access to these factsheets requires members' password.
Find out more about Garden Organic membership here.

The ideal compost bin is:

  * easily accessible
  * has no gaps in the sides and may be insulated with cardboard or straw
  * has a lid or cover

And is located:

  * in a sunny or semi-shaded position
  * directly on the soil or turf

  * away from water-courses

What can I compost?

  * Anything that was once living will compost, but some items are best avoided. Meat, dairy and cooked food can attract vermin and should not be home-composted.
  * For best results, use a mixture of types of ingredient. The right balance is something learnt by experience, but a rough guide is to use equal amounts by volume of greens and browns (see below).
  * Some things, like grass mowings and soft young weeds, rot quickly. They work as 'activators', getting the composting started, but on their own will decay to a smelly mess.
  * Older and tougher plant material is slower to rot but gives body to the finished compost - and usually makes up the bulk of a compost heap. Woody items decay very slowly; they are best chopped or shredded first, where appropriate.

Compost ingredients
'Greens' or nitrogen rich ingredients
Grass cuttings

  * Urine (diluted with water 20:1)
  * Comfrey leaves
  * Nettles

  * Grass cuttings